Thursday, March 26, 2020
Effects of Air Pollution in Delhi Paper Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99. 9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and holes in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter. The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2. 5 microns or about . 0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as black carbon pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quantities of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. The freshness of the air in ones environment has a direct impact on the quality and length of ones life. Air is more of a necessity of life than food or water. Imagine you live In a city where a grey-brown noxious haze of smog permeates the streets in your district. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Air Pollution in Delhi specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Air Pollution in Delhi specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Air Pollution in Delhi specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Imagine that these streets are filled with jam-packed traffic, a slow moving assembly of automobiles which blow UT unhealthy exhaust fumes of carbon monoxide and other harmful chemicals. You cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief to avoid excess exposure to dust and chemical particulates in the air. The air is not pleasant to inhale in deeply, and it gives you breathing trouble, making you co ugh and wheeze. In addition, your eyes water, your nose runs, and you have headaches and irritated eyes regularly when you are outdoors. As you walk on a street in this particular city on a weekday afternoon, a jogger passes by you wearing a face mask, and you observe children playing in a nearby school, inside a giant glass bubble to shield them from the city air. This circumstance is faced by many people living in metropolises of the world like Los Angels and Mexico City. But the situation back home is no better. Air Pollution in India Industrialization and arbitration have resulted in a deterioration of Indians air quality. India has more than 20 cities with populations of at least 1 million, and some of themincluding New Delhi, Iambi, Achaean, and Kolaare among the worlds most polluted. Urban air quality ranks among the worlds worst. Of the 3 million premature deaths in the world that occur each year u to outdoor and indoor air pollution, the highest number are assessed to occur in India. Sources of air pollution, Indians most severe environmental problem, come in several forms, including vehicular emissions and untreated industrial smoke. Continued arbitration has exacerbated the problem of rapid industrialization, as more and more people are adversely affected and cities are unable to implement adequate pollution control mechanisms. Delhi In Delhi today pollution is one of the most critical problems facing the public and concerned authorities. According to the World Health Organization WHO), Delhi is the fourth most polluted city in the world in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SUM). The growing pollution is responsible for increasing health problems. The deteriorating environment is the result of population pressure and haphazard growth. Industrial development has been haphazard and unplanned. Only about 2% of the industrial units are in approved industrial areas; the remainder are spread over the city in residential and commercial area Road transport is the sole mode of public transport; there has been a phenomenal increase in the vehicle population, which was increased from lake in 1 971 to 2 lake in 1999. Data from continuous monitoring of air quality reveals that suspended particulate matter levels still far exceed stipulated standards, there is a significant downward trend as indicated in the following tables. Due to phenomenal growth in the number of motor vehicles Delhi and power generation based on a fired power stations, total amount on coal fired power stations, and total amount of pollutants received by the city is around 3000 tones as compared to 100 tones a decade ago. Sixty five percent of these allotment are produced by motor vehicles. Annual average maximum, levels of SUM in Delis air has increased from 7. 6 times the permissible limit in 1987 to 16. 7 time in 1995. The steep increase in vehicle population has resulted in a corresponding increase in pollutants emitted by vehicles. Petrol consumption has increased from 133 thousands tons in 1980-81 to 449 thousand tons in 1996-97 and HAS consumption from 377 thousands tons to 1,234 thousand tons during the same period, Two wheelers, which constitute 66% of the vehicles registered in Delhi, are the major source of air pollution. Thermal power plants contribute to of air pollution. The main pollutants are stack emissions; fly ash generations and fugitive emission in coal handling. All thee thermal power plants Delhi need better use of their emission control devices and the fly ash that they generate. The air pollution generated from industrial activity in Delhi is about 12% of total air pollution. More than 1,300 industrial units that were not allowed to operate under the MAD 2001 norms have been closed. The 1991 reports by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (INNER), Nagger comments the amount of pollution that is contributed by different sectors in Delhi: In relative terms, the quantum industrial air pollution has decreased over the years. However, vehicular pollution has increased rapidly. The drop in share of domestic air pollution is due to the increased number of LAP connections in Delhi, which have replaced other forms of fuel. Effects of Air Pollution Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals, I. E. , the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, ND upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. In the great Smog Disaster in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and ay aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. Particulate air pollution has less overall impact on unidiomatic deaths in Delhi, India, than in U. S. Cities. But the deaths occur earlier in life in Delhi, which could mean a larger loss in life-years. Cropper, Simon, Albertan, and Sahara report the results of a time-series study of the impact of particulate air pollution on daily mortality in Delhi. They find: CIA positive, significant relationship between particulate pollution and daily unidiomatic deaths as well as deaths from certain causes (respiratory and radionuclide problems) and for certain age groups. C In general, these impacts are smaller than those estimated for other countries, where on average a 100-micrograms increase in total suspended particulates (TTS) leads to a 6-percent increase in unidiomatic mortality. In Delhi, such an increase in TTS is associated with a 2. 3-percent increase in deaths. The differences in magnitudes of the effects are most likely explained by differences in distributions of age at death and cause of death, as most deaths in Delhi occur before the age of 65 and are not attributed to causes with a strong association with air pollution. L] Although air pollution seems to have less impact on mortality counts in Delhi, the number of life-years saved per death avoided is greater in Delhi than in U. S. Cities;because the age distribution of impacts in these two places varies. In the United States particulates have the greatest influence on daily deaths among persons 65 and older. In Delhi, they have the greatest impact in the 15-to-44 age group. That means that for each death associated with air pollution, on average more life-years would be saved in Delhi than in the United States. What Delhi is Doing Today, Delhi is a showpiece example of making air quality safe with its entire public transport fleet converted to Compressed Natural Gas (CNN) on a scale unparalleled anywhere else,000 CNN vehicles including 9,000 buses. Delhi has banned taxis, buses and auto rickshaws older than 15 years. For its efforts, Delhi won the US Department of Energys first Decide Cities International Partner of the Year award for efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives. The great vehicle explosion continues in Delhi. Yet, this rush of clean vehicles keeps the air relatively sparkling. The initiative was entirely driven by the judiciary pushing and prodding a reluctant government. Every step was a struggle till implementing agencies were threatened with contempt of court for their innovative excuses to not implement the CNN programmer. What You Can Do C] Encourage your family to walk to the neighborhood market. Downriver possible take your bicycle. C] As far as possible use public forms of transport. C] Dont let your father drop you to school, take the school bus. C] Encourage your family to form a car pool to office and back. CLC Reduce the use of aerosols in the household.
Friday, March 6, 2020
The Influences of Immigrant Cultures on American Cuisine Essay Example The Influences of Immigrant Cultures on American Cuisine Essay The Influences of Immigrant Cultures on American Cuisine Essay p. 9. Collins, G. (1997, January 9). With Mexican Food Tamed, Big Business Looks Abroad. New York Times. Retrieved from http://nytimes. com Garson, M. (2009, November 3). Tribal Elder, Dinee Navajo Nation. (T. J. Smith, Interviewer) Kolpas, N. (1982). The Gourmets Lexicon, 165. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons. Simone, J. (2009, May 27). As American as General Tsos Chicken. Campus Progress. Retrieved from htp://www. campusprogress. org Zender, J. (2009, November 12). Executive Chef. (T. J. Smith, Interviewer)