Thursday, October 31, 2019

Environmental Managent Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Environmental Managent - Annotated Bibliography Example mping them to the bottom of the ocean has been captured vividly on camera which provides proof of the project known as â€Å"The Next Stop Atlantic (Zolfagharifard, 2015).† The article discusses about different environmental management issue the first being recycling. Recycling is being encouraged in order to save the environment from harmful effects associated with wrongful disposal of the used products (Wehrmeyer, 2011). The other issue in discussion is that of prevention of pollution. Pollution and especially air pollution is known and documented to destroy the environment as well as the ozone layer (Uberoi, 2004). With the used subway cars being dumped in the floor of the ocean instead of burning them, then massive air pollution has been prevented. Lastly is the issue of saving aquatic life and providing them with a longer life span as well as a chance at reproduction. The ocean just like land is full of predatory animals and fish which hunt the fish species and eats them or live off eating their spawn once laid. There are not enough corals to hide all the aquatic life and hence the subway cars provide other artificial corals where the fish can hide and reproduce without danger (Hill & Gale, 2009). The project uses very minimal resources but the resultant environmental impact is very great and positively encouraged (Thomas, 2005). Literature on environmental management impact indicates that recycling is among one of the cheapest form of management. This is compared against the resources used to destroy the recycled materials (Ghosh, 2003). The increased campaign of this project not only in New York and US but the whole world in general should be encouraged. It is guaranteed to reduce the negative impact of pollution as well as ensure the used cars are properly disposed. According to Figueroa & De Chile (2008), environmental management is a very simple thing if only people start thinking outside the box. Once the human beings assist the marine life increase

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Crime and Punishment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Crime and Punishment - Essay Example t or whether, a complaint should be dropped due to lack of sufficient evidences or the unavailability of key witnesses whose depositions are important for framing charges against the alleged offenders. 2. The prosecutor is expected to inform victims of the pressing of criminal charges against the suspect(s), inform the rights of the victims, the availability of legal assistance in the event parties are not able to afford legal services, the dates on which Courts would take up hearing of cases, plea agreement, pre-trial diversion, changes in court schedules, and the date, time and venue in which sentencing would take place. (The Role of Criminal Justice System Personnel). A social construct could be said to be a social framework, categorization or grouping that envisages viewing of an individual, group or idea in terms of social or culture constructions. (Social constructs - Definition of key race relations terms, (2008). Social status, for one thing, could be said to be a social construct. It is often seen that in the US, the cases of discrimination while deciding criminal cases based on social status are quite large and disproportionate. The discretionary powers of the main players, including the prosecutors are immense and may allow scope for unfair treatment of process of meting justice of a social race or person with social background. (Klepper et al, 1983, P 55). It is seen that often prosecutors may dismiss a case on the assumption that if the case were pursued in Court, the judges would do likewise, and thereby, discrimination may be shown to certain races or classes of citizens which reflect on social constructions. The origin of these myths is from the media and vested groups who seek political mileage from spreading myths; community leaders reinforce them and law enforcement agencies who believe that crime needs to be punished, or criminal minds need to be corrected and modified to suit social and environmental requirements. As a prosecutor it is

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Experiment to Determine the Coefficient of Friction

Experiment to Determine the Coefficient of Friction Student Name: Ahmad Raza Summary: This experiment has two aims. The first aim of this experiment is to determine the coefficient of friction on an inclined plane by using various materials tray. Secondly, to verify that the force have already found which were required to move a body on an inclined plane. We have provided apparatus to do this experiment that include stainless steel plane, load hanger, different weights and 4 trays of different materials such as aluminium, brass, nylon and ferado. Firstly, we place tray at the middle of plane and apply weight on weight hanger until tray starts to move. Note the angle and find the coefficient of friction. For this purpose we have found the Normal force and sliding. Then, by using formula of coefficient of friction we found the value, which was approximately 0.18 at 10Â °, 20Â ° and 30Â °. Nevertheless, the additional 10N weight was added but the friction coefficient but the angle will remain same. The experiment was taken by under good circumstances. However, errors can be reduce by overlapping the mistake that was take place in this experiment. This experiment could be done exactly the same as international standard if the following conditions apply on it. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AIMS AND OBJECTIVE The aims of the friction experiment are to find the coefficient of different combination of material which is in this experiment, the steel bar. Making use of inclined plane, also to study equilibrium and non-equilibrium of a body of an incline plane under the action of the force. The objective is to understand that a coefficient of friction could be determine via incline plane, collect experiment data and calculate the corresponding results and coefficient and finally to compare the value of coefficient generated from different pairs of surface. 1.2: THEORY AND BACKGROUND: Friction can be defined as the force that will resists the relative motion of solid surfaces which are sliding against each other. There are mainly three types of friction. Dry friction, Fluid friction and internal friction but this particular experiment was just examined only for dry friction. Dry friction is the encountered when two dry surfaces are in convention if there is a tendency of sliding. However this dry friction has split into two sub frictions as static and kinetic. Commonly, kinetic frictional force will be less than the absolute maximum value from the static frictional force. This static frictional force is derived as fs = ÃŽ ¼sN, while kinetic frictional force is fk =ÃŽ ¼kN, where ÃŽ ¼s is the coefficient of static friction, ÃŽ ¼k is the coefficient of kinetic friction, N is the normal force and ÃŽ ¼ is the proportionality constant and called coefficient of friction. An inclined plane can be defined as any plane surface positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal plane. At the moment of sliding, the friction force must be the same to the element of weight acting down the plane. ÃŽ ¼W .cosÃŽ ¸ =W .sinÃŽ ¸ This leads to the concept of the angle of the friction ÃŽ ¼ = tanÃŽ ¸ CHAPTER 2 APPRATUS AND experimental procedure 2.1: APPRATUS: Adjustable stainless steel plane complete with base .5N load hanger Weights Trays of Aluminium, Brass, Nylon and Ferado Fig1.1: Wood plane and trays 2.2: experimental procedure: As we discussed above, we have two aims for this experiment. Each aim has different procedure. 2.2.1: Following procedure is to find the angle of friction on a steel plane by using different materials. We have given four trays for this experiment such as Aluminium, Brass, Nylon and Ferado. First of all set the plane of stainless steel at 0 slope by ensuring that it is in horizontal plane. Afterward, set the tray of any material at the middle of stainless steel plane then apply weight at the end of plane by weight hanger and note the angle of inclination when tray starts to slide. Take coefficient of Tan ÃŽ ¸ to evaluate static deflection (ÃŽ ¼s).Repeat the same procedure three times and take the average. Subsequently, to evaluate the angle of sliding friction (ÃŽ ¼k) , place the tray again in the middle of plane and reduce the tilt as this time tilt was increased, we keep pushing the tray till it started to move and note the angle for three times and take the average. Static deflection (ÃŽ ¼s) Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for static deflection by using Aluminium tray Table 1.1: Aluminium tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for static deflection by using Brass tray Table 1.2: Brass tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for static deflection by using Nylon tray Table 1.3: Nylon tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for static deflection by using Ferado tray Table 1.4: Ferado tray Sliding Friction (ÃŽ ¼k) Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for sliding friction by using Aluminium tray Table 2.1: Aluminium tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for sliding friction by using Brass tray Table 2.2: Brass tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for sliding friction by using Nylon tray Table 2.3: Nylon tray Measure angle ÃŽ ¸ for sliding friction by using Ferado tray Table 2.4: Ferado tray 2.2.2: Following procedure is to verify the force required parallel to an inclined plane to move a body up the plane corresponds to the friction coefficient already found. First of all set the stainless steel plane horizontally at 10 slope. Place the towing cord and weight hanger in position to pull the tray up to the plane by placing any material tray at the lower end of plane. Add load to the hanger until the tray, given a slide push, slides slowly up the plane. Repeat the same procedure by applying 10N weight at angle 20 and 30. CHAPTER 3 CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS 3.1: Procedure 1 As we found angle above, now to find coefficient of static deflection, take tan ÃŽ ¸. For Aluminium (Tan15.8) = 0.28 For Brass (Tan14) = 0.25 For Nylon (Tan20) = 0.36 For Ferado (Tan18.8) = 0.34 Table 3.1: Coefficient of static deflection As we found angle above, now to find the coefficient of sliding friction, take tan ÃŽ ¸. For Aluminium (Tan10.8) = 0.19 For Brass (Tan15.1) = 0.27 For Nylon (Tan12.3) = 0.22 For Ferado (Tan13.7) = 0.24 Table 3.1: Coefficient of sliding friction Procedure 2: First of all find the normal force Normal Force = W.cosÃŽ ¸ Normal Force = 3.58.cos10Â ° Normal Force = 3.52 N Secondly find the Sliding force Sliding Force = p-(W.sinÃŽ ¸) Sliding Force = 1.2-(3.58.sin10Â °) Sliding Force = 0.58 N Now as we have both normal and sliding force, we can find Friction Coefficient ÃŽ ¼ Friction Coefficient = Sliding force / Normal force Friction Coefficient = 0.58 / 3.52 Friction Coefficient = 0.16 All the values were measured for angle 20Â ° and 30Â ° as shown in the table below. Table 4.1: Nevertheless, the additional 10N weight were added but the friction coefficient and angle will remain same as shown above in the table which proves that weight cannot change the angle and coefficient of friction. By converting mass of the tray into weight we can prove the experiment. W = mg W = 0.365*9.81 W = 3.58 N CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Subsequently investigation in the data, we all observed that hypothesis is true, where the static along with kinetic friction is usually affected by the mass of body. The coefficient in the kinetic along with static friction is determined by materials used for each call surfaces. The coefficients will never always be bigger than 1 and the coefficient connected with kinetic friction is definitely more compact as opposed to among static friction for that identical scenario. The value of coefficient of friction is 0.18.The laboratory on the other hand, we all would come up with a vibrant mistake thats produced each of our kinetic friction importance unfeasible, as the importance for we all received ended up being caused by the tension pulling on the block. However, there were some systematic error occur while doing experiment. These errors were arisen due to string and hanger as they were not straight and each group member have different value while taking reading. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The experiment was taken under good circumstances. However, errors can be reduce by overlapping the mistake that was take place in this experiment. This experiment could be done exactly the same as international standard if the following conditions apply on it. First of all make sure that the hanging masses do not move while adding additional weight on load hanger. This experiment will be really useful in the future to determine the coefficient of friction for different materials. REFERENCE: John, B Carl,T.F.T.F. Ross (2002).Mechanical Engineering Principles. Oxford: Taylor Francis. APPENDIX A CHAPTER 1.. CHAPTER 2.. CHPATER 3.. CHAPTER 4. Page 1 of 11

Friday, October 25, 2019

President Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points :: american presidents, 14 points

President Woodrow Wilson was elected in the year 1912. He was over all a good president, however was not very familiar with foreign policy. His thought was that America should stay neutral and not get involved. This was true, America had enough problems of its own to worry about. Wilson was an honest man and wanted to keep the promises he made during his campaign. He began passing new laws including the Clayton Antitrust Act which made labor unions legal (Joseph, 19). World War I started in Europe in July of 1914. President Woodrow Wilson successfully handled his challenge of war because he declared war, made 14 points, and achieved peace between the countries. Wilson did not want to go to war, it was his belief that America should stay neutral. The war hadn’t begun in England but was going to very soon due to the tension between the countries. Wilsons â€Å"first order of business was to propose a pact of friendship among England, Germany, and the United States† (Osinski 60). However no agreements came from this peace operation. June 28, 1914 war was declared, at this time America didn’t have any reason to join in the war, or to take sides. Since the war had begun American business’s and financial companies wanted to know if they could loan money to foreign countries. American farmers and manufacturers wanted to not limit the restrictions of trade with them and Wilson had to allow Americans to sell goods and loan money to the any foreign country (Osinski 61). America had a part in the war, not directly, but unclearly America was part of the war. On April 6th, 1917 the U.S. declared war with Germany. This was wh at Wilson did not want to do, but good would eventually come of it. President Wilson was ready to present his plan for peace. He made his â€Å"Fourteen Points†, these were his 14 areas for correction and agreement. Some of these fourteen points include freedom of navigation, arms reduction, and forming an association of nations (Collins 96). During these fourteen points Germany was even noted, stating: â€Å"We wish her only to accept a place of equality among the peoples of the world instead of a place of mastery† (Collins 96). The words Wilson used were carefully picked and simply stated. Wilson was applauded for his idea and newspapers wrote about him (Collins 96). In October German leaders told the United States that they wanted to sit down and discuss an end to the war based on Wilson’s fourteen points (Collins 97).

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Buy Anyzone Gold Today Essay

Natural cleaning, Healthy living Air, water, residual agricultural chemicals (pesticides/herbicides) and unpleasant odours (food, bathroom, refrigerator, cigarette smoke and turbid indoor air odours all contribute to our daily toxic load. Most of the solutions developed by industry for ridding ourselves of these pollutants contain additional chemicals, which increase our exposure to potentially harmful chemicals. How Anyzone Gold helps: It’s for the whole family †¢ Disposes harmful bacteria in meat and fish †¢ Removes chemical residue, larva  and pesticides  from vegetables and fruits †¢ Gets rid of unpleasant odor from food Improves skin metabolism and reduces allergy †¢ Removes washing detergent residues and bacteria from household items and utensils †¢ Preserves freshness in food Sterilization and disinfection Germs such as E. coli, colon bacillus, Salmonella, vibrio staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are sterilized and disinfected by str ong oxidation reaction. â€Å"Disinfects without using chemical washing or boiling. † Deodorization and air purification Effective in deodorizing refrigerator odours, food odours, indoor odours, bathroom odours and many more. Indoor air, cigarette odours and unpleasant odours are eliminated and turned into refreshing natural air. Air purification cigarette smoke test sight Before use 10 second 20 seconds Pillow Meat, fish, vegetable and fruits Residual agricultural chemical and harmful elements are decomposed through oxidation. Revives freshness and improves flavour. â€Å"Not a single tested pesticide has ever been proven safe. † Professor Dennis Parke, former Chairman of WHO Joint Meeting’s statement on pesticide residues. What is anion and ozone? Anions are electrons with negative electricity, also known as â€Å"vitamins in the air†. Oxygen anions have the capability to eliminate dust, germs and cigarette odours through purification. It is odorless, tasteless and invisible; we could only inhale it in abundance near waterfalls, mountains and oceans. It also helps in maximizing our brain activity. Ozone is composed of 3 oxygen atoms and has a distinctive and peculiar fish-like odour. It is a light blue gas and has strong oxidizing power, used for sterilizing beverages. It decomposes and destroys residual agricultural chemicals on vegetables and fruits through oxidization. It is also used for sterilization of kitchen and baby goods by filtering out harmful components, biological beings and foreign substances. Ozonated water is safe and effective for: †¢ Bathing pets †¢ Regenerating and removing bacteria and parasites form plants. Just water them and/or spray their leaves †¢ Cleaning fish tanks. Drop your ozone nozzle in the water and watch your tank clean itself! Fish are invigorated by ozone water †¢ Eliminating bacteria on kitchen surfaces †¢ Washing hair. Ozone water protects damaged hair, restoring its colour and manageability; PLUS, it is a great treatment for dandruff! Effective treatment for skin problems, including acne, rashes, eczema †¢ Sinus problems †¢ Leucorrhoea, vaginal thrush. Use the water as a douche. †¢ You can set the Anyzone to run while sleeping giving you that mountain/seaside fresh air in your room. Ozonated air is environmentally safe for: †¢ Disinfecting and â€Å"debugging† closets, and cupboards. †¢ Freshening, deodorizing and disinfecting bedding, linens, and clothing. Place linens in plastic bags with ozone nozzle for just a few minutes. It’s so simple! Company Profile †¦ Global Healthy Link Sdn Bhd with its main office in Petaling Jaya is currently actively involved in the distribution of Ozone/ Anion sterilization equipment, health-related products and water filtration system for both household and commercial use. One of our goals is to exceed the expectations of every customer we come in contact with by offering outstanding customer service, value-added functionalities and operational efficiency. GHLSB strives to provide environmental-friendly, safe, durable and reliable products to its valued customers and will not compromise on product and service quality. Our associates are distinguished by their functional and technical expertise combined with their hands-on experience, thereby ensuring that our customers receive the most effective and professional product recommendation and services. We pride ourselves on our proven track record of having hundreds of satisfied customers since the company started operation in 2004. Functions and Effectiveness of Anyzone Gold Anion Ozone Sterilizer Summary †¢ Removes chemical residue and pesticides on vegetables and fruits †¢ Disposes harmful bacteria in meat and fish †¢ Get rids of unpleasant odor from food Expunges parasites and larva on vegetables and fruits †¢ Ozonated water improves skin metabolism and reduces allergy †¢ Removes washing detergent residues and bacteria from household items and utensils †¢ Preserves freshness in food Sterilization †¢ Food – food are exposed to pathogens (illness causing bacteria) and harmful chemicals during the growing per iod and handling †¢ Kitchen sponges and rags – effective as a germicide/ fungicide to destroy germs, molds, bacteria and any microbes. Does not produce chemical residues during cleaning as in other cleaning agents †¢ Utensils and dishes – Salmonella, E. Coli and many pathogens can cause food poisoning, if not properly cleaned. Thus soaking the utensils and dishes in ozonated water can rid these pathogens. †¢ Pets accessories – Bacteria is common in the stool of pets, thus washing the accessories can rid these bacteria †¢ Children toys – If not cleaned and sterilized properly, can lead to illness and infections †¢ Baby’s Utensils – Babies are sensitive to illness, tooth decay and diarrhea if utensils are not properly cleaned especially bottle nipples and pacifiers. Soaking in ozonated water will help destroy bacteria †¢ Medical instruments – Economical way to sterilize equipment Purification †¢ Drinking water – 90% bottled water uses ozone for purification. The taste of Ozonated water is improved. †¢ Fish tanks/ aquariums – Ozone can destroy algae and bacteria in fish tank with no harmful effect on the fish. Within 20 minutes, ozone will change back to oxygen, due to the instability of the 3rd oxygen, thus increasing the level of dissolved oxygen, keeping the water clearer and the fish healthier. Work as fridge purifier (reduces fodd spoiling and illnesss) – Ozone destroys food spoiling bacteria and mircroorganisms and organic chemicals, maintaining the freshness of meat and vegetables. †¢ Hot tub, spa and bath water – Ozone is far cheaper than chlorine at destroying bacteria and microorganisms without any adverse effect on sensitive skin †¢ Air purifier – Ozone destroy impuriti es in the air such as bacteria, molds, smoke etc. It also reduces dust and other particles because of the negative ions produced as a by product.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

HR manager

As the Assistant to the HR manager, I would make a mandatory requirement that all incoming employees must complete a new program that was created by me with in their first 90 days. This program would be designed to ensure that our new talent understands the importance of working together. My program would include these three key principles of working together. The first principle would be on how to effectively communicate as a team. It Is very Important when working together as a team that all vital information Is communicated amongst each other In a clear positive manner.The next principle I would focus on In my program would be having ur Incoming employees work on a group trust exercise. To ensure a high performance team when working together, the team members must be able to trust all the Individuals In the group. The last principle I would Implement Into my program as the assistant to the HR manager would be a diversity workshop. This workshop will prepare Incoming employees to e ngage creatively, and work out difficult situations with peers of many different backgrounds. ncoming employees will find out immediately that there is a major focus on team work throughout their training. In their first week I would have them focus on how to effectively ommunicate to their peers in the workforce. I would set them up in groups, and have them start with ice breakers, then move on to a small collaborative project. I hope that they learn that effective communication is very important, not only to share the proper amount of information, but by also knowing how to talk in a professional manner.You always want to avoid talking down, and barking orders to your co- workers when working together. Effective communication is not possible if you do not talk to your team members in professional manner. Once the new incoming employees have learned how to communicate effectively when working together, I ould then have them participate in trust building exercises. We all know that trust is the building blocks behind any good relationship, and I would want our new incoming employees to have a good working relationship, and to have trust amongst each other.Some of these trust building exercises would include group projects. These projects are to be designed to have each member of the group to complete a certain task. To accomplish the end result, the overall goal everyone will need to play apart. Groups that complete the project will see that their trust and teamwork lead them to their completion. The other groups that did not finish will also see how Important trust and teamwork is to their success. The last key principle I would Implement in my program for new Incoming employees Is a diversity workshop.Diversity In the workplace has many benefits to It! Some key points that I would want my Incoming employees to get from the workshop will be working together with other cultures to foster a more creative and Innovative workforce. Multicultural employees bring a variety of bring new Ideas, and suggestions to the table. Many Ideas that are refreshing, and sometimes very Innovating. I would want the Incoming employees hat are hired for leadership or managerial posltlons to really focus on diversity when Interviewing, and recruiting talent.Recrultlng from a diverse pool of candidates means a more qualified workforce. A diverse and inclusive workforce also helps Duslnesses av010 employee turnover costs I do believe that my program that will be rolling out to our incoming employees will not only be beneficial to their personal professional development, but also to our organizations. The three key principles listed in my program will have our staff prepared to work together as a highly motivated efficient team!

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Treatment of Love, Marriage and Religion in the fiction of Khushwant Singh

Treatment of Love, Marriage and Religion in the fiction of Khushwant Singh Free Online Research Papers Khushwant Singh arguably is India’s most read and known author, columnist and journalist. Born on 15th August 1915 in Hadali, now in Pakistan, Mr. Singh started his career as a lawyer in Pakistan but soon he left the idea of becoming a successful lawyer. He decided to take risk in the field of writing. Mr. Singh belonged to the trade family yet he never thought of trying his hand in business or construction. He inducted thinking in the direction of writing and started his first novel Mano-Majra, which later became popular as â€Å"Train To Pakistan†. At first it was not received with much enthusiasm but after a short period bibliophiles recognized Mr. Singh’s genius as a novelist. â€Å"Train To Pakistan† (Mano-Majra) won Grove Press Award in 1954. It also earned the attention of innumerable readers from India and abroad. The Grove Press Award filled him with courage to try another novel then second novel came and third, fourth and fifth. The chain is on till today. Though Mr. Singh has crossed 90 yet we can expect another novel so far as his stamina is concerned. â€Å"Train To Pakistan† discussed the after effects of India’s independence, which brought the partition of India and Pakistan. Mr. Singh focused on the lower class people who became the main victim of partition. A huge mass of victims transferred form one place to another. This migration also caused killing, raping and looting. The entire story of the novel revolves around one particular village Mano-Majra in the far provinces of Punjab. The life of the village is simple and quite peaceful, which is regulated by the whistles of trains. But all of a sudden, the untimely arrival of a train disturbs the peace of the village. This train brings the countless corpses form Pakistan. On the other hand Malli with his fellow culprits robs and murders Lala Ram Lal. Jagga’s absence from the village draws him in the circle of suspicion. Iqbal, a communist reaches Mano-Majra but on account of being a stranger he with Jagga is also arrested in Lala Ram Lal’s murder cas e. Malli is also arrested but after some time he is released. Meanwhile Mano-Majra turns into a refuge camp. In the village some criminal minded people provoke the others to send a â€Å"Train To Pakistan† full of corpses. Jugga is released and he comes to know about the villagers so for the sake of his beloved Nooran, who is also heading to Pakistan, determines to capsize the conspiracy. He sacrifices his life and lets the train go to Pakistan untouched. The novel obviously shows that Mr. Singh did not approve the scene of partition. He highlighted the political errors during the partition and registered his protest against the tragedy. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† dealt with pre-independence period when entire India was burning in the fire of slavery. India was divided into two sectors. One sector was favouring the British rule while the other was striving for the freedom. The story of â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† revolves around the family of Mr. Buta Singh who is loyal to the British Raj. He is so much overwhelmed with the loyalty that he is not ready to even imagine India without British rule. On the other hand his son Sher Singh becomes the leader of an anti-British group. Sher Singh with his friends Madan and the others, indulges in the murder case of a village headman, who witnesses their anti-British activities. His group damages the bridge too. Sher Singh’s arrest disturbs the peace of Buta Singh’s family. This disturbance takes the life of Sher Singh’s mother Mrs. Sabharai. The conflict between a father and a son continues till the end of the novel. The main motto of Khushwant Singh writing this novel was to highlight the hidden poltroon in the characters of so-called freedom fighters and the treasons in the service of British rule. In â€Å"Delhi† Mr. Singh again turned towards the Indian history. This time he presented the making of Delhi in different eras. â€Å"Delhi† is a tour guide to Delhi the capital of India more than a novel and the events teller is a Sikh who takes the different characters to different places of Delhi and tells the related incidents to that place. Timurid, Aurangzeb Alamgir, Nadir Shah, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Bahadur Shah Zafar and Meer Taqi Meer are the historical characters, who discuss their secret lives with the readers. The writer brought the lives of religious people also in light like Hazrat Nizamuddin and Sarmad Shah. Mr. Singh unveiled the cruel side of Aurangzeb’s picture that he executed the ninth guru of Sikhs. Mr. Singh spiced up the tasteless subject like history with the love making scenes. He aspired to peep inside the private lives of Mughal kings and queens. Bhagmati a eunuch represents Delhi and the related chapters do not let the readers get bored. Mr. Singh extends the history from Mughal to British and then to the emergency after the assassination of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. One of her Sikh security guards killed her. In revenge the people from Indira’s side started killing the Sikh everywhere in India but the scene was worst in Delhi. The Sikhs were butchered mercilessly. Through this novel again Mr. Singh registered his protest against the irregularity and brought the political errors of mid eighties into the light. â€Å"The Company Of Women† is the life sketch of a modern individual who after separation from his wife plays with the women like a wanton child. He only wants to satisfy his sexual instinct by hook or crook. Mohan Kumar graduated from America comes back to India. His father finds a suitable match for him but his married life could not last long. After two children his wife decided to take divorce form Mohan Kumar. After separation from his wife he hunted several women. He hired women from respected families like a professor from Haryana and a masseuse from Goa on temporary relationship conditions. He made physical contacts with many women that he did not spare a lady sweeper, a nurse and a prostitute. This excess of sex brought the most fatal disease to Mr. Mohan. He gets infected with HIV AIDS. This was enough for him to be humiliated and at last he committed suicide. In â€Å"Burial At Sea† Mr. Singh again turned towards the Indian history during freedom struggle and the after independence. But this time he focused on some other kinds of freedom fighters, who did not strive physically but with economically. Victor breathed in slave India but he determined to make India economically stronger and independent. He went to England for better education where he collected the relevant information about establishing the mills. For the purpose he hired best technicians from England to stand a chain of mills and used Indian men power to run these mills. Soon he became a famous business tycoon of India. His wife died and left a daughter Bharti, who paved the path of her father and in her puberty she started taking interest in business. After the death of his wife Victor passed a long period of his life in celibacy but towards the old age he revived his sexual instinct when he fell in love with a tantric woman, who had a dubious past. She made him experience the unbridled sex. She got pregnant and before they could take any decision some people killed Victor. In this way this energetic machine all of a sudden stopped. According to his will he was buried under sea near his ship house in Mumbai. Mr. Singh Masterfully portrayed the both strata of freedom fighters. Before Mr. Singh many writer have treated love, sex and marriage but only Khushwant Singh could talk about love and sex with much candour and boldness. Love is the noblest gift bestowed upon the human being by God. It is the feeling of love that ties us with our relatives, friends and loved ones. But today the love is mixed with selfishness, greed and sin. That is why today the love lacks the warmth of love and greedless love. The writer has aspired to a great extent to explore the love but love cannot be discussed without sex. In â€Å"Train To Pakistan† Mr. Singh highlights the love between Juggat Singh and Nooran. On the other hand he shows the far greater love between two communities i.e. Sikh and Muslim. Here it can easily be observed that Mr. Singh believes in the famous quotation â€Å"Love is blind†. The love does not know any hindrance of caste, colour creed and age. Almost all his novels are brimful with the love affairs between the lover of different communit ies like Juggat-Nooran, love affair in â€Å"Train To Pakistan†, Hukum Chand-Haseena love affair in â€Å"Train To Pakistan†, Madan-Champak love affair in I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale, Mohan-Jessica Browne love affair in â€Å"The Company Of Women†, Mohan-Yasmeen love affair in â€Å"The Company Of Women†. The motto of Khushwant Singh behind delineating these love affairs is that he definitely wants to create love and amity among all the communities. Mr. Singh does not feel shame in talking about the love affair between mature and immature. Hukum Chand in â€Å"Train To Pakistan† falls in love with an immature girl like Haseena, younger than his own daughter. In â€Å"Burial At Sea â€Å"Victor falls in love with Durgeshwari of the age of his daughter. Sex is the result of love. It comes later but remains on the top priority. Mr. Singh treated the theme of sex in almost all his novels. Sex becomes the impregnable pillar of his popularity. Mr. Singh adopted the boldness and candid style in depicting the sex. He unveiled the naked truth of society. Mr. Singh admits that sex is the basic need of human being. That is why so much sex cases like rape and the extra marital sex affairs can easily be observed in the society. For the first time Mr. Singh discussed the extra marital affairs. In â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale â€Å"Champak, wife of Sher Singh starts committing adultery with her husband’s friend Mada n. He is also a married man but he likes having sex with his friend’s wife Champak. When the arrows of sex hurt, a person forgets all the boundaries and crosses all the limits. Sex can make a father rape his daughter. Even a religious person does not feel shame in desecrating the holy campus of a shrine and the temple. In â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale â€Å"Peer Sahab commits adultery with Shanno within the premises of the holy shrine. Mr. Singh highlighted this truth and satirized these kinds of people. The sex can turn anyone blind. Mr. Singh’s fourth novel â€Å"The Company Of Women† is completely dedicated to sex. Mohan Kumar before marriage enjoys sex with many women even after his marriage he does not leave enjoying sex with different women. He enjoys sex with a sweepress Dhanno, Mary Joseph a nurse, and a prostitute. In America he has had sex with Jessica Browne and Yasmeen Wanchoo. In Indian after divorce he starts having sex on contracts. Eve n the women form high-class families respond in affirmative and enjoy unbridled sex with Mohan Kumar. Is such a sexual drama not being enacted in our society? Mr. Singh just brought it in light. So far as the marriage is concerned Mr. Singh has bitter experiences regarding it. Even his own married life has come to the breaking point many times but it is his wit that he handled the situations and survived his conjugal life. Though Mr. Singh crossed ninety and his wife eighty he loves his wife more than anything else. According to Mr. Singh, his pen will stop if his wife stops taking breathe. Mr. Singh neither fovoured divorce nor he thinks that separation is the solution of problems regarding marriage. According to him the bond of marriage is not breakable. Though Mr. Singh has passed a long period of his life abroad yet he is a true patriot and a true Indian. Mr. Singh was born in 1915 when India was the slave of British. He saw the freedom struggle and the atrocities on Indian by the British rulers. While India got freedom Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru hoisted the Indian flag on 15th August 1947, Mr. Singh was standing fifty yards away from Lal Quilla. The tears of happiness in his eyes blurred the vision. But the tragedy of partition just after the independence again made him feel sorry and shattered. As a true patriot he did not favour the partition of India and Pakistan. Regarding this tragedy he poured his bitter views in the very first novel â€Å"Train To Pakistan†. The tragedy of partition only caused the low class people of India and Pakistan. A huge mass of people migrated form one place to another in search of peace and love. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† also depicts the personal lives of freedom fighters. It also contains a conflict between two generation and pro-British and anti-British. â€Å"Delhi† is another link of this chain, which shows Mr. Singh’s love for the country. In â€Å"Delhi† Mr. Singh talks about the making of Delhi in different era. He depicts the period from Mughal to the emergency. Mohan Kumar in â€Å"The Company Of Women† returns to India after passing a considerable time in America like the hero of â€Å"Delhi†. Mr. Singh adopted the Sikhism for the background of his novels. Mano-Majra, which later became â€Å"Train To Pakistan†, is a story of different changes in a Sikh Village during partition. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† revolves around a Sikh family and depicts the traditions and rituals of Sikh community. Mr. Singh himself belongs to the Sikh community so he found it damn easy to take the Sikh background for his novels. The hero of his three novels is an irreverent Sikh, who at the crucial time acts according to the Sikh doctrines. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† depicts the vivid and limpid description of Sikh rituals and traditions. Though Khushwant Singh is a converted Sikh yet he strictly follows the traditions of Sikhism. It is another thing that he calls himself an atheist. During the emergency after the assassination of Mrs. Indira Gandhi Sikh were being mercilessly killed. Mr. Khushwant Singh raised this issue in his third novel â€Å"Delhi†. Before the elections in 1980 Mr. Singh supported Indira Gandhi and her family. He also favoured Sanjay Gandhi in his birth control programme. After the election when Indira Gandhi came in the power she got him nominated for the Membership of Parliament. Further she offered him the Editorship of Hindustan Times. From 1980 to 1985 Mr. Singh remained the Member of Parliament. During this period he experienced many vicissitudes of politics. So far as his novels are concerned he has pointed out the political failures in his novels. In â€Å"Train To Pakistan† he highlighted the political failure during partition. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† deals with the political ills before independence. Mr. Singh has memorized the Indian political history. On the other hand he has a wide approach to other religions. Sikhism is his own religion but he has studied all the other religions of India and abroad. He finds out the lacunas in the religions and passes comments on them while he suggests the readers to adopt the good aspects of any religion. According to him Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Christianity, almost all the religions have some flaws and some good things so we must follow the good things of all the religions. Mr. Singh adopted the traditional technique to discuss these issues in his novels but at some places he became experimental. His novels initiate with the traditional technique but soon his genius comes out and he starts experimenting with the style. Since the art of novel writing developed almost all the novelists adopted the same technique to initiate the novel. But it was the beginning of nineteenth century, which produced a splendid harvest. In the post-Victorian period novel was mixed with all other forms of literature. Without adopting traditional method of writing none can achieve the regard of a novelist. Modern writers have to read and follow the classics. Without reading the predecessors and their method of writing, a novel cannot be initiated. Khushwant Singh’s novels are very much close to the reality. A limpid glimpse of the era in which the novel was written, can be observed, like â€Å"Train To Pakistan† contains the greatest tragedy (Partition) of India’s history. â€Å"I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale† deals with the theme of freedom struggle before independence. â€Å"Delhi† got us closer to the Mughal dynasties. â€Å"The Company Of Women† unveiled the naked truth of high-class families and their uncontrollable sexual instincts. In Burial at Sea, again Mr. Singh turned to Indian history and this time he brought those people in light, who fought for the Indian economy. Descriptive and Narrative technique presents a vivid picture and while reading the novel it seems some times as if we are not reading a novel but watching a film. His novels are full of historical elements with humour irony and satire. Mr. Singh has used simple, spicy and sometimes provocative language to emphasize the incidents. Words from the Hindi language also add stars to the story and create interest in between. Symbolized language and the characters help readers understand the central idea of the novel. His novels are big achievement for Khushwant Singh. Through novels he earned name, fame and recognition but moreover he got the sense of fulfillment. He has been conferred many decorations and awards. Where his novels brought awards there Guru Nanak Dev University conferred an honorary Doctorate on him. In 2000 he was conferred the â€Å"Honest Man Of The Year Award† by the Sulabh International Social Service Organization. His writing has won a huge mass of admirers in India and abroad. He is a close friend of many writers of International fame. Before initiating his career as a novelist Mr. Singh studied M. R. Anand, R. K. Narayan and Raja Rao yet he holds a unique place in contemporary Indian literature. M. R. Anand dealt with the exploitation of the lower class by upper class in his novels while R. K. Narayan commented on the prevailed superstition among the Indian. He created his own imaginative world ‘Malgudi’. The characters rise from the soil of Malgudi and participate in R. K. Narayan’s stories. Raja Rao worked on symbolism. Khushwant Singh touched almost all the aspects of society like he depicted the exploitation of Indians by the British rulers. He also commented on the rapidly spreading superstition in India. He symbolized â€Å"Delhi† with a eunuch Bhagmati, who is seduced by different people for pleasure. Delhi has also been ravished by the different Mughal dynasties and the British rulers. Though Khushwant Singh imitated these three novelists yet he has got a prominent place in modern literature. Most probably in India the great writers, poets and scholars are given great value after death that is why the writers who have left for their heavenly abode are put in the category of great writers while the modern writers are not given so much regard what they deserve. At present Mr. Singh is better than any other writer in contemporary Indian literature in English. Whatever he writes is influenced by the social, political and individual’s faults and lacunae. A vivid glimpse of the societ y is irresistibly fleshed in the novels of Khushwant Singh. It would not be wrong to call him an event recorder and a historian more than a novelist. His four novels except â€Å"The Company Of Women† are based on history and the reality of Indian history’s vicissitudes. He turned the reality of Indian history into novels and made it readable to present before the readers. The Sikh history also a proof of Mr. Singh’s being a historian. â€Å"Delhi† also cries out the Indian Mughal history. Mr. Singh writes whatever comes to his mind that is why his creative cosmos is distinctly his own. Thus he becomes a brilliant post independent Indian novelist. Research Papers on Treatment of Love, Marriage and Religion in the fiction of Khushwant SinghLifes What IfsInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesPETSTEL analysis of IndiaQuebec and CanadaMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductCapital Punishment19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)The Masque of the Red Death Room meanings

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Duhem

The Duhem Introduction Scientific proposition necessitates more than one insinuation to the situation in order to be analyzed practically. Through segregation, it may not be feasible to experiment any scientific hypothesis as stipulated by the problem raised by Duhem–Quine (Duhem-Quine thesis).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Duhem-Quine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The thesis presented by Duhem-Quine may also refer to the auxiliary hypotheses or assumptions. In essence, predictions cannot be made easily through this thesis (Curd Cover 1998, p. 10). However, a number of typical postulations in the surroundings would be a boost to obtaining predictions from the correct hypotheses. For instance, it is feasible to derive any prediction once there is perfect scientific information in the preceding hypothesis and if the actual test works as premeditated. In fact, when studying the planet, astronomic and physical the ories take into account facts and proofs of the notion that the world is in a continuous motion. The malfunctioning of both the background assumptions and the hypothesis may perhaps lead to the falsification, as well as examination of the experimental scientists. According to the thesis presented by Duhem-Quine, the separation of a solitary hypothesis from the entire package of hypotheses is not achievable. Besides, researchers are faced with a single solution to the predicament. Thus, failure of the empirical tests increases the likelihood of scientists to think otherwise. Actually, researchers would think that the examined theory is wrong even if the assumptions at the background are believed to be accurate. Thus, chapter three of the Philosophy of Science basically offers simple and analytical techniques that are coherent in heightening and developing physical sciences. All these are developed in divergent sections, which include the portion that talks about the formation of a co rporal principle. The other portion concentrates on the subject matter and aims of the corporal principle. Thus, the Quine-Duhem states that it is not possible to examine any scientific theory through isolation owing to an experiential examination of the hypothesis that needs more than one contextual assumption.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Main Body Basically, Duhem’s point necessarily leads to the incommensurability thesis. There are several justifications to support this claim. According to Duham-Quine’s Philosophy of Science, the indeterminacy of translation is incompatible with the rendition manuals for any language. In fact, the manuals can be arranged in a system where there is no impartially exact choice. A powerful variety of empiricisms required for affirmatively necessary or confident basis of credence through inductive verification was ruthlessl y criticized by Duham and Popper. The declaration is intrinsically covered by Martin Curd and Christopher Pincock in the Philosophy of Science. Quine stated that there are scientific theories that are irreconcilable yet they are practically correspondent. Specifically, the theory states that there is a connection between propositions that express pertinent proof and suggestions that comprise the theory. The logic behind this theory is that recurring annotations of white swans do not prevent the likelihood of the survival of black swans. In essence, the peak point in the distortion is the fundamental testing. According to Quine (1986), the testing can be carried out if two contradictory suppositions predict diverse results in some solid situations. When the condition arises through tentative management or opportune combination of intrinsic occurrences, the outcome amid the competitors may be one or another. The hypothesis raised doubts regarding the reason for distortion, hence the i nfluential character of critical testing. When investigating the subject, Quine states that the results of any testing are not envisaged on the foundation of a single thesis only since supplementary theses are involved. The outcomes are often challenging and are not primarily regarded as threatened, when the thesis of concern is examined.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Duhem-Quine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nonetheless, if the results of the testing are not envisaged, it is rationally probable that the thesis under examination is correct and the inaccuracy reclines in one or more of the supplementary examinations (Gillies 1993, p. 7). The Duhem-Quine problem examines the representation and classification of experimental regulations. The objective of all impartial hypotheses is the depiction of investigational regulations. The terms truth and certainty possess a single implication with regard to such a the sis. The terms articulate concordance amid the termination of the thesis and the regulations recognized by the observer. Furthermore a rule of physics is only the synopsis of perpetuity of trials that have been conducted or shall be conducted in future (Quine 1954, p. 3). Fundamentally, Duhem’s argument regarding experimental laws essentially leads to the incommensurability theory. According to this author, a sound thesis offers an acceptable depiction of tentative laws. He stated that the conformity to the experiment is the only criteria of reality for a physical thesis. The author acknowledged four consecutive operations in the expansion of such a thesis. They include the description and gauging of physical magnitudes. In this, he identified the easiest characteristics of physical procedures and articulated the choosing of hypothesis. He also accounted for the interconnection devised in prior stages and articulated the arithmetical progression of the thesis. This level is g uided simply by the constraints of arithmetical reason devoid of physical realism. Finally, he articulated the evaluation of the thesis with experimentation. The Duhem-Quine theory is critically concerned with falsification. The philosophy offers the methodology that develops the uncertainty of repudiation. Inherently, the author states that when a physicist opposes a certain principle, he or she contributes some uncertainty to a specific hypothetical point.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this view, he hypothetically creates the justification for these doubts. From the proposal under arraignment, scientists will develop the forecasting of an investigational detail. Consequently, he or she will take into consideration circumstances under which the investigational detail should be developed. When the anticipated detail is not developed, the proposal which acted as the foundation of the estimation will be condemned. He explored the Bayesian turn in identifying the outstanding characteristics of distortion when accounting for the research program in view of various challenges. As a result, Quine observed that the Bayesian outline is not hinged on the valuation of impartial prospects in the first instance. The Bayesians begin with the likelihoods that are allocated to philosophies by experts (Lakatos 1978, p. 12). In this case, there are disagreements among different Bayesians. Basically, the disagreements concern how the likelihoods are assigned. It does not matter if biased belief is applied or is subjected to individuals’ behavior. Consequently, the author introduces the Bayess Theorem as formulated below. P(h!e) = P(e!h)P(h) where P(h), and P(e) 0 P(e) In this condition, he was concerned with the integrity of the theory h in comparison with experiential confirmation e. This means that the ensuing probability regarding the entirety of the evidence can be articulated. When written in the above form, the theorem states that the probability of the hypothesis’ provisional confirmation is equivalent to the prospect of the proof’s provision in the theory reproduced by the prospect of the theory in the absence of the confirmation factor. The result is then alienated by the possibility of the confirmation (Curd Cover 1998, p. 3). Conclusion The paper reviewed Duhem-Quine thesis expansion as presented by Gillies. In this paper, the fundamental modification by Quine and the traditional formulation of the postulation by Duhem have been observed. In fact, when predictions fail, the reasoning is that the concurrence of numerous hypotheses in a rational presumption disqualifies the unambiguous acknowledgment of error. Hence, it undercuts the attractive reasoning in critical research as a way of deciding amid rival theories. Duhem-Quine thesis has not blocked the development of science since neither Quine, nor Duhem predicted such a result. Interestingly, the thesis has aggravated lively discussions and the reconsideration of boundaries of common sense and the drawbacks in naive observations as offered by evidence collision. In general, Duhem never argued about the probability of conducting experiment to disprove theories. However, the scholar emphasized that the disclaimers plunged upon schemes of theories while the examination of experience was no longer instantaneous and straight. The series of circumstances transpiring from scientific decision-making rule out any simple or solitary solution to the falsificati on ambiguity. There is an understandable background that is suitable to warrant safety in the experimental outcomes. Based on other instances, scientific problem is less specific. Consequently, different works will possibly offer solutions to the thesis. Duhem-Quine thesis is moreover posed in a modus that is uncooperative. Yet, the reliability on science anchors on instantaneous negations or confirmations. Duhem gives us a more convincing standpoint regarding his discharge of prompt rationality. Thus, the understanding of Duhem-Quine problem stipulates that scientists should not rush into conclusions when choosing between systems theory. References Curd, M Cover, J 1998, Philosophy of science: the central issues, Norton and Company, London. Gillies, D 1993, Philosophy of science in the twentieth century: four central themes, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. Lakatos, I 1978, â€Å"Why did copernicuss research programme supersede ptolemys?† Philosophical Papers, vol. 1 no. 3, Ca mbridge University Press, Cambridge. Quine, O 1986, Reply to Jules Vuillemin the philosophy of W. V. Quine, Library of Living Philosophers, Open Court, La Salle.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Writing About History

Writing About History Writing About History Writing About History By Maeve Maddox Ever since people started writing history, theyve needed some way to locate events in time. Romans tied events to consular years. Two men were elected every year to serve in the office of consul. Roman historians said that a certain event took place in the year that Marcus Such and Such and Publius So and So were consuls. Historians who lived in monarchies could date events to regnal years, that is, a time tied to the reign of a particular king. This battle was fought in the third year of King So and So. Some Jewish and Christian writers referred to creation years. Various scholars believed they could date the creation of the earth from clues in the Bible. One commonly accepted date was October 7, 3761 BCE. Writers would use that date as a reference point. Roman consular dating prevailed in the West until the year 541 CE when the Emperor Justinian I stopped appointing them. The terms BC and AD were first used by a monk in about 525 CE. Its starting point was the year in which Jesus was thought to have been born. (Modern scholarship places the birth date of Jesus at 4 BCE.) Anything that happened before Year One is referred to as happening BC Before Christ. Anything after that date is said to have occurred AD Anno Domini, literally in the year of the Lord, i.e., after the birth of Jesus. The traditional way of writing BC and AD dates is to put AD in front of the date and BC after it. For example, Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Joan of Arc was executed in AD 1431. Now that the various cultures of the world have become intertwined, a dating system based on a particular religious view is no longer appropriate. Most writers of history have adopted the notations BCE and CE. BCE stands for Before Common Era. CE stands for Common Era. In this notation, Julius Caesar died in 44 BCE; Joan of Arc in CE 1431. The dividing date between BCE and CE is a Year One that coincides with the Consular Year One in which Gaius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Paulus were consuls. Different dating systems are still being used in various contexts. Muslims use a calendar in which Year One corresponds to CE 622, the year in which Mohammad took his followers from Mecca to Medina. Anything before that date is referred to as BH; anything after, as AH. The H stands for the Arabic word hijra, migration. AH stands for the Latin Anno Hegirae, in the year of the Hijra. The Jewish calendar references its Year One as the year before the Creation, i.e. 3762 BCE. For Buddhists Year One corresponds to 543 BCE, the year Buddha died. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Arrive To vs. Arrive AtFor Sale vs. On Sale3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Tyranny of Choice - Barry Schwartz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Tyranny of Choice - Barry Schwartz - Essay Example rilliantly in his essay by first mentioning everyday choices so a clear picture is formed in the readers’ minds and then he channels the focus to his real purpose of critiquing too many choices in the education system. Schwartz begins with common examples to elaborate his point for two main reasons. First, he wants to establish familiarity among readers. They should be able to relate what Schwartz has to say. Everyone eats or knows cereal flavors and watches cable TV channels, not everyone is in college though. Second, he wants to point out that the explosion of choice is not only limited to the field of education. Be it food, fashion, entertainment or travelling, everyone has too many choices in every niche. It is not just the common examples that make the essay more agreeable, it is the common logic presented in it beautifully that makes it worth a read. Schwartz never says that choice itself is bad. A little choice is very healthy and almost essential for a healthy society. The way society has progressed showed that people were getting happier when they had two TV channels instead of one. Similarly one flavor of ice-cream will certainly bore anyone if fed every day. So the simple logic would be more choice makes people happier. But studies show (as mentioned in the essay) that people are happier when they had ‘some’ choice. David Myres, Robert E. Lance and Gregg Easterbook have conducted a study that shows a happiness decline of 5% (compared to 1974) among people despite bombarding them with so many choices (Schwartz 835-36). Another study suggests that people are less likely to purchase when they can choose from 30 flavors of jams compared to choosing from a total of six flavors (Schwartz 836). The approach of essay is also necessary to asnwers the ‘why’ behind the declining happiness. Without giving examples from everyday life early on this clarity of presentation would not have been possible. The hypothesis of Schwartz’s own investigation into

Friday, October 18, 2019

Managing Diversity in Hotels in Lebanon Research Paper

Managing Diversity in Hotels in Lebanon - Research Paper Example Diversity in the workplaces has been beneficial because the diverse groups possess more tools, heuristics, perspectives, insights and knowledge when it comes to problem solving than homogeneous groups. The owners of these hotels also have different nationalities and possess diverse cultural backgrounds, therefore, integrate diverse people into the workforce. As diversity increases in the hotel industry, managers have seen an increasing number of matters concerning the management of diverse workplaces. This has prompted them to adopt strategies and methods that will help them in managing diversity (Groschl 225). This paper is concerned with the strategies, aspects and enhancements that are being utilized in managing diversity in the hotel industry of Lebanon. Diversity can be explained as the varying individual differences that organizations are faced with ranging from the visible differences such as age, sex, and ethnicity to the invisible differences such as social class, sexual orientation, culture, religion, educational background, skills, personality, and experience. Diversity management involves the handling and comprehension of these individual differences that the employees and the clients possess in an effort to achieve the desired goals of the hotel industry. Diversity management not only recognizes that every individual is unique and has a particular vital role in the organization but also includes the achievement of the organization’s goals as a tool to foster the advancement of the individual (Heres and Benschop 437). In simpler terms, it involves proper management of diverse human resources to ensure that the best outcomes for the business are realized. Lebanon for a long time has valued its tourism industry immensely as it provides a sizeable source of revenue to the country’s economy. Cultural tourism has always been a part of Lebanon’s broad tourism industry with many Europeans finding their way into the culturally diverse country. The hotels feature diverse workforces like their diverse customer base. In the advertisements the hotels showcase mountain ski resorts, discos, and well preserved churches among other features that attract tourists from different places in the world. They offer international cuisines and a wide variety of beverages to the customers’ preferences. The hotels are also strategically located near bars, restaurants, pubs and even churches such as the Maronite Catholic Cathedral, which are amenities exclusively meant to serve the tourists since Lebanon’s population is largely composed of Muslims (Beirut Hotel 2013). Managing cultural diversity is important for the line managers, expatriate managers and the Human Resource professionals in order to create effective programs that will help the hotel meet its goals. They must possess relevant information on the different cultures and ethnicities that will help provide a base on the activities that should be done to increase the efficiency of the diverse workforce. It is important for the managers to attend trainings and workshops to assist in managing the diverse workforce. Many hotel managers are required to take such trainings in order to effectively manage diverse workforces. Take the example of The Four Points Sheraton Hotel in Beirut. This hotel recruits employees from across the globe and receives a diverse customer base. In order to manage and serve the employees and the customers, the managers have undergone training on how to manage a culturally diverse hotel. In order to successfully manage a diverse workforce, some strategies such as adopting recruitment and training programs, and corporate diversity programs can be used.

Topical Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Topical - Research Paper Example Food security involves a situation whereby all human beings have physical and economic access to enough, safe and nutritious food that can meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life. Decision makers, policy makers as well as concerned members of the public have widely discussed issues on how much food the world is growing or is able to grow and whether the production of food involves sustainable management of natural resources. In addition, they have also been discussing how food is distributed at the global, regional, national, and household levels. All these concerns have been crucial in achieving concerted efforts and the international commitment of organizations concerned with world food production such as food and agricultural organization (FAO) (Nicholson, 2009, p14). Emerging acknowledgement of other food problems has placed the concerns of the food system in a much broader context. The concerns include human health closely tied to food safety and the growing cases of nutrition related illnesses such as heart diseases; the commercialization and industrialization of food and agriculture; the emergence of advanced technologies with eminent positive and negative economic and environmental impacts; the emergence of transnational organizations in international food markets; rising concentration in food production, processing, and retail and armed conflicts (McMicheal, 1994, p20). There are environmental challenges facing the global food system. These challenges include climate change, the extortion of natural resources, salinity, increased amount of pesticides, GMO concerns, and biodiversity challenged closely linked to monocropping. Each of these challenges does not cross modern borders, hence making the study of the food system itself a valuable and important experience (McMicheal, 1994, p20). The food challenges being experienced in the world now are both diverse and complex.

Chapters Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chapters Summary - Essay Example n, use of least pressure, deterrence from the use of severe measures until inevitable, and specific and detailed description of performance problem to the employee. Managers must have full awareness of the problem to use the disciplinary process effectively. First the manager diagnoses the problem together with the employee, and after coaching and feedback, if the desired improvement is not seen, actions become unilateral from bilateral, thus causing the manager to decide what eventually needs to be done to halt the consistent poor performance of the employee. Progressive discipline involves least use of force to solve performance problem, but in case of failed solution of cooperative problem, consequences are applied. The three phases of progressive discipline process include identification and cooperation, cooperative consequences in the case of persistence of performance problem, and unilateral consequences. Identification and cooperation includes identification of problem and pre paration of plan to solve it. Cooperative consequences include identification and application of consequences. Unilateral consequences include taking severe action in case of persistence of problem remaining within the labor agreement constraints. Commitment and a different mindset is required to manage performance. Good management aims at adding value instead of speeding up the processes to get everything done quickly. Common managerial objections include being too busy to take more work, not being clear on the manager’s job, considering the system dreadful, dissatisfaction of the employees with the appraisal process, tendency of employees to benefit from the cooperative approach of the manager and the power being shifted from the manager’s hand into the employees’ as a result, considering the process of performance appraisal useless until used for rewarding employees, lack of acknowledgment of the imperfection of any pay for performance system, fear of the manager to lose

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Epic Heroes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Epic Heroes - Essay Example Therefore, the extraordinary feats that heroes perform never fail to excite because each feat is unique and distinct in its own way. We read about heroes in storybooks and novels. We are impressed with their good looks and benevolence in movies. We are awe-struck by their deeds in thrillers. We are benumbed with fear as we watch them shadow ghosts and their ignoble cousins. The acts of heroism interest everyone due to their brush with difficult and sometimes seemingly impossible situations. This interest is highlighted even more when it is seen that the principal character in every story has traits and talents poles apart. Undoubtedly, the first ones who come to mind upon anything to do with the concept of hero are the Greek epic heroes like Odysseus with their supreme majestic good looks and gleaming, muscular frames. In the case of Odysseus, he is a mighty man in terms of his physique as well as mental abilities. The source of Odysseus strength and survival capacity is his reverence for the gods. He is capable of doing what no other man could dare through timely support from different gods in different situations. In terms of physical prowess there is no equal to the Greek epic heroes. They defied terrestrial and extra-terrestrial domains. The annals of a bishop wou... On the contrary, religious figures are commonly conceived as those whose lot it is to suffer and die! The Bishop in Les Miserables is tender-hearted and kind, but there is a steely resolve that carries the power to melt the hardest heart. The hero in Les Miserables has the unique ability to grasp a situation and turn it around to everyone's good. Mr Duvitch in The Strangers That Came to Town initially seems repulsive and unwanted in his neighborhood, but his humility and meekness silently impacts the neighborhood. Indeed, the plot in the story uncannily hides the true nature of the Duvitch family until the heroic albeit innate traits of Mr Duvitch unfold towards the end. Conclusion The writers of each story display extraordinary talents unique in their own ways. The Greek epics were written eons ago. But they continue to excite and inspire. Although the reader is well aware that Odysseus' exploits can only have happy ending she is willing to give the writer the opportunity to witness the range of his creativity and imagination. Thus, the plus point in the story is the use of the elements and situations made subtly and intricately delectable, and the reader lets the hero get away with nave tolerance in ingenuous ease since divine interventions and manipulations are treated with more interest and respect. Throughout human history, in each age and era, heroes have appeared center-stage, moved among people, lead from the front, took on mightier foes, and dispensed justice. They also sought peace, pursued noble missions, and built structures of benevolent justice. The mysterious ingredients of heroism have the potential to appear from the most unexpected sources and the most unlikely characters.

The Democrat and the Dictator Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

The Democrat and the Dictator - Movie Review Example nsively reveals childhood lives and their different paths they used to raise to power and how each was an excellent communicator, with unique and influential ideas. The film has a unique organizing principle of comparative treatment. Through this, it is easy for viewers to relate the motion pictures that show the Nazi regime and its influential propaganda to the Roosevelt’s communal style of leadership. Automatically, democracy grants full freedom to people but in dictatorial form of leadership, people are denied access to equal rights. While Roosevelt was concerned with developing and ensuring that the society benefits from the government incentives and plans, Hitler, though claimed to love children and animals, it never meant anything to him because he brutally murdered anything across his path, especially the Jews. Therefore, he was after destroying the society and not building it. Confidence plays a critical role in political success. Even though the world considers Hitler a serial killer, Germans admired his confidence and thus remained obedient and loyal to him. This indicates that he had followers till today. Through his confident smile, Roosevelt won the 1932 Presidential nomination because the smile was accompanied by an engaging behavior. However, in politics, leaders can do anything to remain in power. After losing, Hitler made sure all his competitors are eliminated so that he could remain the master of the nation. The film gives an impressive analysis of Roosevelt’s Hitler’s background origin, how their ideologies were shaped by circumstances and environment, and their missions as leaders. While some people are born leaders, others are made and shaped by the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Epic Heroes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Epic Heroes - Essay Example Therefore, the extraordinary feats that heroes perform never fail to excite because each feat is unique and distinct in its own way. We read about heroes in storybooks and novels. We are impressed with their good looks and benevolence in movies. We are awe-struck by their deeds in thrillers. We are benumbed with fear as we watch them shadow ghosts and their ignoble cousins. The acts of heroism interest everyone due to their brush with difficult and sometimes seemingly impossible situations. This interest is highlighted even more when it is seen that the principal character in every story has traits and talents poles apart. Undoubtedly, the first ones who come to mind upon anything to do with the concept of hero are the Greek epic heroes like Odysseus with their supreme majestic good looks and gleaming, muscular frames. In the case of Odysseus, he is a mighty man in terms of his physique as well as mental abilities. The source of Odysseus strength and survival capacity is his reverence for the gods. He is capable of doing what no other man could dare through timely support from different gods in different situations. In terms of physical prowess there is no equal to the Greek epic heroes. They defied terrestrial and extra-terrestrial domains. The annals of a bishop wou... On the contrary, religious figures are commonly conceived as those whose lot it is to suffer and die! The Bishop in Les Miserables is tender-hearted and kind, but there is a steely resolve that carries the power to melt the hardest heart. The hero in Les Miserables has the unique ability to grasp a situation and turn it around to everyone's good. Mr Duvitch in The Strangers That Came to Town initially seems repulsive and unwanted in his neighborhood, but his humility and meekness silently impacts the neighborhood. Indeed, the plot in the story uncannily hides the true nature of the Duvitch family until the heroic albeit innate traits of Mr Duvitch unfold towards the end. Conclusion The writers of each story display extraordinary talents unique in their own ways. The Greek epics were written eons ago. But they continue to excite and inspire. Although the reader is well aware that Odysseus' exploits can only have happy ending she is willing to give the writer the opportunity to witness the range of his creativity and imagination. Thus, the plus point in the story is the use of the elements and situations made subtly and intricately delectable, and the reader lets the hero get away with nave tolerance in ingenuous ease since divine interventions and manipulations are treated with more interest and respect. Throughout human history, in each age and era, heroes have appeared center-stage, moved among people, lead from the front, took on mightier foes, and dispensed justice. They also sought peace, pursued noble missions, and built structures of benevolent justice. The mysterious ingredients of heroism have the potential to appear from the most unexpected sources and the most unlikely characters.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Choka Enterprises Essay Example for Free

Choka Enterprises Essay An effective reward system is organized to stimulate, inspire and motivate individuals to enhance their overall job performance. Our system is designed to appeal and retain staff of the right quality with an understanding of the financial status of the organization. This reward ststem is designed to boost the functions and core values of the organization that our employees will continue to with success. The factors to consider are: †¢ Performance associated pay †¢ Incentive †¢ Job Evaluation †¢ Monitoring the recruiting and retaining of staff †¢ Cost control mechanism by reviewing salaries and wages

Monday, October 14, 2019

Fantasy Movie Visual Effects Film Studies Essay

Fantasy Movie Visual Effects Film Studies Essay Film, the new form of storytelling, is one of the most entertainment sources in our daily life. It would be very hard to get a movie ticket at the weekends unless you got a reservation. Most of you have preferences to some genre, which keeps you turned on. Fantasy is one of the most fascinating genres, not only in film but in all the forms of art. It helps us to escape from the reality, from all our stress and tensions, for few hours. Most of the fantasy films are adapted from literature. Many would have waiting for your favorite fantasy novels movie release as I am waiting for the new Harry Potter film. You got many expectations for a film, might be wanted a great effects or waiting for your favorite part of the story. If your expectations are not fulfilled by the film makers you would probably disappointed. Film industry is an extremely competitive field with new technologies, creative ideas, and many more things. With the increasing number of new movies, film makers are trying very hard to impress the audience through new stories, visuals, and technologies. Two centuries ago, the famous short film, The Arrival of a Train made the audience to scream and ran out of the theater. The train was that much believable for those people, who were unfamiliar with films. But gradually people started to examine film very observantly. Film makers did everything they can do to make the film much more believable and try to give a new experience to the audience. It is very hard to trick them now, very hard to get their applause. As giant fishes always catch the attraction, some big pictures came and well received by the audience. They are not become success just because of its budget, definitely It would have all the right elements to be a film. In this 21st century, CGI and visual effects become one o f the key elements in films. Film makers are using these effects to impress the audience even the story doesnt demands it. Many films succeed while others become a big visual effects mess. Statement of the problem How much the fantasy film influence the development of visual effects Purpose Significance of the study Research questions 1: what is the influence of fantasy genre in film industry? 2: what is the significance of fantasy movies? 3: what is the role of fantasy films in the development of visual effects? CHAPTER 2: Background Fantasy: Fantasy can be defined as the boundless imagination or the liberation of mind from the reality. There is no limit, we can go anywhere, do anything, talk to animals, and if you want to fly a four headed dragon to the moon you can simply do that. Every single person in this world would have been in a fantasy world at least once in their life time, through their dreams or unbounded thoughts. Many wouldnt have recognized this as fantasy. Among those, some passionate and creative minds travelled lots of distance and found new wonderful stories. Those stories have reached in the real world, preserved for the generations through orally, and later inspired many to write fantasy literature. Fantasy Fantasy films: Fantasy films have been started since the birth of the medium itself. Watching these kind of movies in the silver screen must be a visual feast for the spectators. It would be a real challenge to make these kinds of films at the beginning stage of the film itself because of the visuals which these stories demands. It stands beyond reality so the film makers had to find some innovative cinematic techniques to create the hyper realism on the silver screen. Most of the early films were static shots that filmed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. They would have used only the ability of the camera to capture image rather than thinking about new cinematic techniques. But before the 20th century few filmmakers have found new filming techniques to create some special effects which give inspiration to others for the invention of many innovative special effects techniques in the following years. With a result of that many fantasy films had born in the silent era of film. The arrival of sound and color in film made an innovative change in the fantasy film genre, which helped the directors to take the viewers more deep inside the fantasy, through emotions and colorful visuals. Fantasy film genre: Sub genre: Sword and sorcery musical fantasy light fantasy dark fantasy History of fantasy film: Fantasy film, consists of the elements of magic, supernatural events, fantasy creatures, fantasy world, fairy tales and sorcery, have events which are unlikely to occur in real life. This film genre is considered to be different from science fiction film and horror film, although the genres do overlap. The limitations of the fantasy film genre are not well defined. Early period: In 1896, Georges Melies, a French film director, considered as the father of special effects, filmed the first fantasy film The Bewitched Inn. This film is about a man who goes through some series of dreadful experiences from an inn. The film runs two minutes, might be the longest running film of that time. Melies used the special effects technique called stop trick, which he accidentally discovered while filming street traffic in Paris. Besides stop trick, they also used some invisible wires to drift up the characters hat and clothes towards the wall. In 1898 Melies directed another fantasy film named The Astronomers dream (La Lune à   un mà ¨tre). This film is about the terrific things happening in an astronomers dream. It runs three minutes, lengthier than the previous one. They designed the set very well and it gives more strength to the three minutes narration. In terms of special effects this film mainly reliant on the stop trick but we can see the use of mechanical prop for the moon and a very short stop motion animation on the screen. His experiments were the stepping-stones to further advances in special effects. Again in the year of 1903 and 1904, Melies came up with two more great fantasy movies The Infernal Boiling Pot (Le Chaudron Infernal) and The Impossible Voyage (Voyage à   travers limpossible). In the film The Infernal Boiling Pot, Melies has shown two green goblins doing some incantation on a burning cauldron which have three girls in it. The film runs 2 minutes and they had hand colored each frame of the film to get a colored film. It helped to create more sinister atmosphere and to increase the impact on the audience. The impossible voyage is considered as one of the greatest film of Melies and the important fantasy film of the silent film era. It is an adaptation of Jules Vernes play  Voyage à   travers lHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Voyage_à  _travers_limpossibleaction=editredlink=1HYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Voyage_à  _travers_limpossibleaction=editredlink=1impossible. The films running time is about 20 minutes, approximately five times longer than other films of that time. Most films prior to this one, mainly consist of one or two shots and they were short in running time, had not developed in a level to tell a complex story. The impossible voyage tells the story of, passengers boarding a train which takes them on an adventure to the sun and even under the ocean. This film had used the advantages of editing and we can see a dissolve effect between the scenes. Through these type lengthier films with great narration, gradually film turn out to be a medium of storytelling. After the great fantasy films from the special effects wizard Georges Melies, lots of movies had born in this genre. By the year of 1910 movies were gradually growing into full length movies, an average of 80 minutes of running time, along with the special and visual effects technologies, which encouraged the film makers to produce more complex fantasy films than the previously done projects. It also helped to expand the potential of the genre by strong narration and provided the fantasy ambiance to the audience. In 1903, Alice in Wonderland, an adaptation film based on the Lewis Carrolls fantasy novel Alices Adventures in Wonderland, came out. The film was directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow and it is impressive for its use of special effects, including Alices shrinking at the entrance Doors and stuck inside of White Rabbits home with her full height. Some of the films special effects were achieved through jump cut and trick photography. The film showed only a few portion of the novel, because many scenes were technically impossible to shoot at that time. However, the film would have been impressed the audience because it was the first time they had seen a visual representation of their favorite novel. Later in 1910 the film had been recreated by the  Edison Manufacturing Company  and directed by  Edwin S. Porter in the original name of the book. In this 10 minutes film, Edwin s Porter couldnt include all the Carrolls memorable characters from the novel. Again in 1915, W.W. Young an American film director made the third adaptation of this film with fifty minutes of running time. This version goes much deeper in to the Carrolls novel than prior films, even fifty minutes is not much enough to narrate Carrolls fantasy story.   In the year of 1910, the most influenced fairy tale of all time, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. HYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Frank_BaumFrank Baum, came into silver screen. This is the first adaptation film based on a novel which had been followed by its sequels. The story happens in a fantasy land called the Land of Oz and Dorothy and her friends are the characters in the story. There is no reliable proof about who directed this thirteen minutes film but many criticizers considered that Otis Turner might have done it. In the same year three more films in this series came out which are Dorothy and the Scarecrow in Oz,  The Land of Oz, and  John Dough and the Cherub, and all are considered to be  lost films. In 1914, three more films came out in this title, all directed by J. Farrell MacDonald and produced under The Oz Film Manufacturing Company. They are The Patchwork Girl of Oz,  the Magic Cloak of Oz, and  His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz, with an average ru nning time of 60 minutes. Later in 1925, another Oz movie was released by the name Wizard of Oz, directed by  Larry Semon. This film changed radically from the novel, introducing new characters and exploits. Along with a completely different plot, the film is all set in a world that is only barely recognizable as the  Land of Oz  from the books. All these Oz films had failed to make any impacts on the audience. Creating a fantasy world is a very difficult thing, if we couldnt make the audience to believe in the story, it all would look completely ridicules. Many film makers had failed to achieve this magic, thus make the genre to wait so long to get its triumph in motion picture. Other superb fantasy films in the early period were  Raoul Walsh  Ã‚  The Thief of Bagdad  and  Fritz Langs  Die Nibelungen both released in the year 1924. The Sound era: Technicolor and sound would be another great achievement in film history. Sound effects could make fear and anticipation in fantasy films or even play with viewers emotion in happy fantasies. Technicolor gave filmmakers the capability to create stunning special effects that impressed the viewers. The most famous film which made use of the magic of color and sound was the 1939 musical fantasy film The Wizard of Oz  directed primarily by  Victor Fleming. A sudden change from black and white to color gave more fantastic effects to the fantasy world and it allowed the filmmakers to deliver the full beauty of the visuals. The Land of Oz was very spectacular, complete with flying witches, wizards, talking trees and animals and many other fantasy elements. We could find many changes in the plot though the film was far more faithful to Baums original book than the earlier film versions. The Wizard of Oz  has considered as one of the best loved fantasy film of all time because of its st unning visuals and strong narration, and it became a true classic. This 103 minutes film was produced by  MGM and the budget was three million dollars, most expensive production up to that time. The film earned six million from the box office and thirteen million from television broadcast rights. That would have inspired many filmmakers to produce fantasy films. 1power of narration à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦taking the viewers along with the story.. Make them to feel the emotions of the characters Give the feel believable of hyperrealism Disney also effectively used a combination of color and sound in many of its fantasy films, both live action and animated. The makers of  The Wizard of Oz  might have been influenced by the success of  Walt DisneyHYPERLINK http://oz.wikia.com/wiki/Walt_Disney_PicturesHYPERLINK http://oz.wikia.com/wiki/Walt_Disney_Picturess  Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,  released in the year 1937, which proved that a fantasy film could attract an enthusiastic adult audience too, a trick that earlier Oz films had failed to achieve. Fantasy movies and the film industry: As a cinematic genre, fantasy has traditionally not been regarded as highly as the related genre of science fiction film. Undoubtedly, the fact that until recently fantasy films often suffered from the Sword and Sandal afflictions of inferior production values, over-the-top acting and decidedly poor special effects was a significant factor in fantasy films low regard. Even 1981s  Raiders of the Lost Ark, which did much to improve the genres reputation in public as well critical circles, was still derided in some quarters because of its comic book-like action sequences and tongue in cheek comedy. Since the late 1990s, however, the genre has gained new respectability, driven principally by the successful adaptations of J.R.R. Tolkiens  The Lord of the Rings  and J.K. Rowlings  Harry Potter  series. Jacksons  The Lord of the Rings  trilogy is notable due to its ambitious scope, serious tone and thematic complexity. These pictures achieved phenomenal commercial and critical success, and the  third installment  of the trilogy became the first fantasy film ever to win the  Academy Award for Best Picture. The Harry Potter series has been a tremendous financial success, has achieved critical acclaim, and boasts an enormous and loyal fan base. Following the success of these ventures, Hollywood studios have green lighted additional big-budget productions in the genre. These have included adaptations of the first and second books in  C. S. Lewis  The Chronicles of Narnia  series and the teen novel  Eragon, as well as adaptations of  Susan Coopers  The Dark Is RisHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Dark_Is_Rising_(film)ing,  Cornelia FunkesInkheart,  Phillip Pullmans  The Golden Compass, and  Holly Blacks  The Spiderwick Chronicles. Fantasy movies in recent years, such as the  Lord of the Rings  films, 2005s  Narnia  adaptation, and the first second and fourth  Harry Potter  adaptations have most often been released in November and December. This is in contrast to science fiction films, which are often released during the northern hemisphere summer (June August). All 3 installments of the  Pirates of the Caribbean  fantasy films, however, were released in July 2003, July 2006 and May 2007 respectively, and the latest releases in the  Harry Potter  series were released in July, 2007 and July 2009. The huge commercial success of these pictures may indicate a change in Hollywoods approach to big-budget fantasy film releases. Adaptation Themes, imagery, and visual elements Detailed study of developments in visual effects Case study 1 The lord of the rings trilogy My same philosophy applied to digital effects as to the overall design. I wanted the monsters to feel real right down to the dirt under the fingernails of a Cave Troll or the bloodshot, bulging eyes of Gollum.   Peter Jackson   The lord of the rings film trilogy, directed by Peter Jackson is an epic saga of J.R.R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings books, become a milestone in the history of motion picture. The trilogies, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, and  The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, all released in the year of 2001, 2002, and 2003 respectively.   It was a revolutionary movement in the visual effects film making. Both the book and film had given a new birth to the fantasy literature and film genre. The trilogy achieved commercial, critical and phenomenal triumph. Each film of the trilogy had nominated for the Academy Award for Best picture in the three consecutive years and finally the third chapter, The Return of the King won the best picture award, and becomes the first fantasy film ever to achieve this honor. It won a total of eleven Academy Awards including for the ground breaking visual effects, ties up with the classics Benhur and Titanic. Peter Jackson and crew created an entire digital world to give life to the Tolkiens middle earth. This film is the best example of high fantasy. The story happened in the Middle earth, the three films follow the quest of Frodo Baggins and the fellowship to destroy the One Ring to defeat the Dark Lord Sauron. In the final battle at Gondor, Ring has been destroyed and Sauron and his powers are vanquished. The story is rich with many fantasy elements such as, wizards, dragons, creatures, beasts, giant talking trees and many more .The success of the film showed the scope of fantasy films and encouraged many production companies to green light new fantasy oriented projects. Thus the first decade of the twenty first century got more than fifty fantasy films on the silver screen. All major behind the scenes works had done by the New Zealand based visual effects company WETA Digital. They would have assembled potential people from all fields of animation and visual effects to dedicate years of their lives to create stunning effects that fulfill this high fantasy, middle earth epic story. All three films got more three thousand effects shots. WETA Digital had used many visual effects technologies to create the effects and creatures. They have invented new technologies and changed some existing technologies to overcome the challenges in creating some scenes. One of the most exciting creatures in  the film is Gollum, who was born like a hobbit named Smà ©agol, but transformed into something far more frightening as a result of his encounter with the ring. For creating Gollum, they have used very advance motion capturing. Gollum would be the most sophisticated digital character seen at that time. Visual effects technologies The lord of the rings trilogy had used many ground breaking visual effects to create the fantasy. WETA Digital is the major effects studio behind the films, but some shorts are also given to the studio Digital Domain. WETA had used many technologies to achieve the effects. Here we are going to look through those technologies. Massive Creating the war scenes are one o the most challenges faced by the filmmakers. All films in the trio had more than one war sequence in which thousands of soldiers are fighting. Creating this kind of mass crowd is a big problem that had not been solved in film making. A research to develop a new technology to overcome this problem had conducted in WETA Digital by the technical director of the film Stephen Regelous. It resulted in the creation of new software called MASSIVE (Multiple Agent Simulation System in Virtual Environment). It can easily generate thousands or millions of agents that all act as individuals and can respond individually to its surroundings. These reactions affect the agents behavior, changing how they act and controlling motion captured animations to create a realistic looking characters. The software used fuzzy logic to achieve this kind of properties. This technology helped WETA to create the epic war sequences. This technology is a great contribution to the vis ual effects industry and later it used in many films. Subsurface scattering Creating the creature Gollum was another big challenge for the director. This character played a main role in the films. Gollum was brought into life by the combine efforts of computer animation and sophisticated motion capture technology utilizing fluid dynamics. They studied many kinds of anatomy to create realistic joint movement based on actual organic muscle and bone. For getting more realistic look they have applied sub surface scattering shader for the first time. WETA developed vast amounts of code to create Gollum, notes Peter Jackson. They developed new modeling codes, new skin codes, new muscle codes. He is amazingly life-like and we were able to give him a range of expressions from the evil of Gollum to the sympathy of Smà ©agol. Peter Jackson